A Blockchain Consensus Engine Platform


Proof-of-Capacity (PoC) is a consensus mechanism based on providing a proof of storage space. In a PoC consensus algorithm, when a node submits a block to the network it must also provide a valid proof of capacity. It is very difficult for a node to generate a valid capacity proof without having the corresponding storage size, and the proof can be verified by any node in the network. If both the block data and the proof are valid, the block will be accepted by the rest of the network. The basic principle behind how a proof is provided is as follows: during the initialisation phase, a series of data is generated according to the protocol and is saved in the storage device capacity. When the a new block is to be generated, a part of this stored data is revealed retrieved based on the value of a random number. This data part is then used to generate a proof and the node is able to compete for the next block.

Advantages of MASS

Secure

Using the principle of time-memory trade-offs, the PoC protocol ensures the unforgeability of proofs, and together with the use of a verifiable random function ensures that the MASS system has 51% Byzantine Fault Tolerance. Furthermore, a fork detection punishment scheme protects the main chain from Nothing-at-Stake attacks that could split the main chain.

Fair

The MASS PoC consensus protocol guarantees that a node’s block generation probability is dependent only on the proof of effective capacity provided by the node. In addition, the proof of effective capacity is storage medium independent, so that all nodes participating in the MASS network have similar marginal costs.

Energy efficient

In the MASS PoC protocol, computing resources are only required when initialising storage capacity, and when entering the block consensus phase storage capacity data is only accessed at O(1) complexity a time. Therefore, using the MASS PoC protocol for block consensus does not require continuous power input consumption. When the MASS system performs block consensus, the computing resources used are negligible; small enough not to affect the normal usage of a computer. When storage capacity is not participating in the MASS network, it can be reformatted and used for other uses purposes.

Universal

During the consensus process, the node only needs to perform an access query on the initialised capacity and does not perform any data operations on it. Therefore, the same storage space can provide capacity proofs for multiple blockchain consensus instances, and nodes using the MASS PoC protocol can simultaneously support multiple blockchain instances in parallel.

MASS Protocol

The MASS PoC protocol and bitcoin’s Nakamoto consensus protocol can both be described with a unified mathematical model. F(⋅) is a one-way permutation function for space |N|x to space |N|y. The verifier takes a value y from space |N|y, and within a certain period of time, the prover must submit give a corresponding value x for in space |N|x within a certain period of time so that where F(x)=y. The Nakamoto consensus protocol uses an exhaustive brute-force search method to calculate y values with F(⋅) by iterating all possible x values in order to find the right xwhen a collision of y happens, making multiple requests on the function to find the corresponding y value and thereby confirm the value of x.

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